Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Burrhus Frederic Skinner People do on a day to day basis, many actions without realizing it, and most of the time, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know why they do them. Certain reinforcements, some positive, and some negative have conditioned their actions and thoughts. All organisms, including humans, are greatly influenced by the consequences produced by their own behavior. The environment holds the key to most of the changes that occur in the way a person behaves and a humanÃ¢â¬â¢s own behavior brings consequences that change his or her actions (B. F. Skinner). Dr. B.F. Skinner forged the theory of Behaviorism, Ã¢â¬Å"a school of psychology that rejects the unobservable and focuses on patterns of responses to external rewards and stimuliÃ¢â¬ (Skinner, B. F.). Burrhus Frederic Skinner was born March 20, 1904, and raised in Susquehana, Pennsylvania, where his father worked as a lawyer and his mother was a strong and intelligent housewife (Boeree). SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s parents encouraged him in his schoolwork, and he was well read as a child (B. F. Skinner). B. F. was Ã¢â¬Å"an active, out-going boy who loved the outdoors and building things, and actually enjoyed schoolÃ¢â¬ (Boeree). He enjoyed literature and biology especially (B. F. Skinner). Skinner attended Hamilton College in New York State (R. W. Kentridge). Ã¢â¬Å"He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t fit in very well, not enjoying the fraternity parties or the football games. He wrote for school paper, including articles critical of the school, the faculty, and even Phi Beta Kappa! To top it off, he was an atheist Ã¢â¬â in a school that required daily chapel attendanceÃ¢â¬ (Boeree). He continued to read widely and to pursue interests in literature and biology. He began to write a lot of fiction and poetry, and became known as an aspiring poet. After his junior year, he attended the Summer School of English at Breadloaf, where he met Robert Frost (B. F. Skinner). When he graduated, Ã¢â¬Å"he planned to spend a year writing a novel, but found that he had nothing to write about and suffered through what he would later refer to his Ã¢â¬Ëdark yearÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ . Skinner considered pursuing graduate study in English, but eventually settled on psychology instead. Ã¢â¬Å"The choice of psychology followed SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s realization that what intrigued him about literature was actually human behavior, a topic he felt could be approached more suitably through scienceÃ¢â¬ (B. F. Skinner). The writi ngs of Frances Bacon had interested... ...ood and bad. He tested his theory by inventing the Skinner Box and operant behavior. With his theories and testing, people now know how the many actions they perform throughout the day, and why they perform them. Works Cited A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: B. F. Skinner. PBS. 15 May 2000. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh.aso/databank/entries/bhskin.html>. B.F. Skinner. Boise State University. 9 May 2000. <http://education.boisestate.edu/FACHTML/cohort3/skinner.htm>. B.F. Skinner Foundation - Documents - A Brief Survey of Operant Behavior. The B.F Skinner Foundation. 14 May 2000. <http://www.bfskinner.org>. Boeree, Dr. C. George. B.F. Skinner. 9 May 2000. <http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/skinner.html>. Leahey, Thomas H. "Skinner, B.F." Academic American Encyclopedia. 1995 ed. R. W. Kentridge. Skinner Box. 17 May 2000. <http://www.biozentrum.uni- wuerzburg.de/genetics/behavior/learning/Skinnerbox.html>. Skinner, B. F. 17 May 2000. <http://www.encyclopedia.com/articles/11954.html>. Skinner, B. F. About Behaviorism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974. Skinner, B. F. Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillian, 1953.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Utilization of GIS in Tourism BY Raymondville Abstract Currently, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is becoming to be known as one of those most valuable analytical tools for managing, displaying large volumes of data and decision making that pertinent to regional planning activities or local Infrastructure constructions (Giles, 2003). Nevertheless, compared with the success GIS technology gained in other fields, the utilization of GIS applications in tourism field is small and with slow growth.From an engineer's perspective, adoption of GIS technology brings benefits to the sustainable tourism in numbers of ways, including election making under the context of huge volume of Information, estimation of travel time, monitoring the traffic situation, and also evaluating the planning phase as well. From a different angle, successful GIS establishment can efficiently assist tourists to achieve satisfaction and affectively make local economic promotion.Introduction GIS technology refers to Ã¢â¬Å"a geographic information system integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced informationÃ¢â¬ (SERIES official website). This remarkable imputer-based set of tools enables people are used for collecting, storing, retrieving, mapping, analyzing, transforming and displaying spatial and non-spatial data from geographic world for a particular set of purposes that varies for each discipline (Gabbier. 2005).GIS in Tourism The generic capableness of GIS Indicate that this technology has tremendous potential in tourism in the visualization term, but its applications are limited in tourism field due to lack of general database of those visitors. For instance, GIS is unable to Illustrate the origin and destination of visitors. What is more, it cannot predict the resists' expenditure patterns, motivation of travel, transportation selection, etc. In order to pursue a further investigation, Bearer a nd Elliot-White categorized functionalities of GIS.The table 1 demonstrated below is the generic capabilities of a GIS (Batter and Elliot-White, 1999). Table 1 capabilities of a GIS Functional capabilities of a GIS GIS Basic Questions Tourism Applications Data entry , Storage and manipulation Location What is at? Tourism Resource Inventories Map production Condition Where Is it? Identify most suitable locations for Database Integration and management Trend What has changed? Measure ours impacts Data queries and searches Routing Which is the best route?Visitor management/flows Spatial analysis Pattern What is the pattern Analyze Assess potential impacts of tourism development Decision support Source: Bearer and Elliot-White 1999, p. 159 Both GIS and tourism are sharing the common boundaries and disciplines such as the geography of particular area, urban development, environmental analysis and traffic study. This characteristic determines the usage of GIS provides information to land managers or stockholders to analyze the risks and opportunities associated the growing tourism industry.For example, whether the increasing visitors in a particular land would put local biodiversity and water source to risk or create enormous number of Job opportunities? The following table indicates common tourism-related issues and GIS application (Elliott-White, 1999). Table 2 Common tourism-related issues and GIS application Problem GIS Application Benchmark/database Systematic inventory of tourism resources Environmental management Facilitating monitoring of specific indicators Conflicts Mapping recreational conflicts; recreation-wildlife; user conflict Tourism behavior Wilderness perceptionsCarrying capacity Identify suitable locations for tourism/ recreation development Prediction Simulating and modeling spatial outcomes of proposed tourism development Data integration Integrating socio-economic and environmental datasets within a given spatial unit Development control and di rection Decision support systems Source: Bearer and Elliot-White 1999, p. 162 These two tables from Bearer and Elliot-White apparently reveal the benefits by utilizing GIS technology through tourism field.These advantages include improving land management with accurate data and spatial attributes, easing the conflicts, hanging the information over time and decision making. Mapping Different from the traditional paper mapping that only considering the surface look of the world, GIS mapping is far more complicated. One distinct difference is that all ego-information, such as land and other spatial characteristics have to be presented in one map.It allows the combination of tourists attributes such as objective types, categories of hotels and stations names and the postcodes; or the near nesses, distance, object locations with a designated rectangular map area Avionic, 2008). Such spatial feature information can be respectively presented by different layers ND then be amalgamated and f inally becomes a digital map. It enables mapped can analyze layers separately when using this map. In these cases, the map contributes to simplify planning and management in tourism due to it specifies detailed components of the particular area.Figure 1 presented below is the example of layers for tourism industry what clearly shows people the constitution of a digital map Tourism using GIS in China An outstanding example from China that has been mature in this GIS tourism field is Hough city, what is located in the south east part in China. Hough city has a omelet digital-framed categorical platform with multiple applications in numerous aspects such as land monitoring, real estate managing, traffic monitoring, etc.Figure 2 below shows the general interface of the digital platform. Categorical tourism system is one of the subset under the entire digital system and it operates on two main elements: spatial and attribute data. Visitors can access this program using their phones and c omputer or those particular devices provided by hotels, and enter their starting point and destination and coordinate an optimal route for their trip.This program also has implicit geographical references like lace's name, address, postcode, and road name and road number on it. Moreover, there are evaluations and comments given by former visitors showing up since visitors select the restaurants or hotels on the map. With this categorical tourism map, the numbers of visitors of Hough City gained an obvious increase. Visitors appreciated the convenience this technology has brought to them in optimizing the tourism planning.And because of this program, the traffic burden is mitigated during the peak period of tourism. Sustainability of GIS Tourism Unregulated tourism is generally regarded as an environmental unfriendly activity u to an excessive intensity and it consuming nonrenewable resources (Passbook, 2008). Depends on the seasonality of tourism, the negative elements influence nat ural, cultural, social and economic environment involve emission from transportation, erosion by building roads connecting landmarks, damages of local natural biodiversity.However, with GIS technology, engineers and experts can analyze the land then come up with better strategically management planning, and gradually minimize the negative impact brought by unregulated tourism. Conclusion As tourism is constituted by numerous complex activities, and all involved in terms of trial, cultural, social and economic environmental demands, thus a powerful tool is really necessary for its sustainability.GIS technology is proven to be one of the successful results for land management and decision making so far. The GIS has visual presentation of tourism data Avionic, 2008). Apart of this, from an engineer's perspective, the spatial and non-spatial data contained by digital map dramatically contribute to effectively managing the land, easing the conflicts and risk, promoting the sustainability of tourism. Hereby, GIS technology utilization need to be proposed and extended in tourism field.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
The Womans Rose, The Necklace, and The Story of an Hour In this essay I will be comparing Ã¢â¬ËThe WomanÃ¢â¬â¢s RoseÃ¢â¬â¢ By Olive Schreiner, Ã¢â¬ËThe Story Of An HourÃ¢â¬â¢ By Kate Chopin and Ã¢â¬ËThe NecklaceÃ¢â¬â¢ By Guy De Maupassant. Each of these stories arte set in the patriarchal 19th century and all of them have the hint of women fighting for freedom, for example in Ã¢â¬ËThe Story Of An HourÃ¢â¬â¢, Mrs Mallard didnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel free until the death of her husband, Mr Mallard; Ã¢â¬Ësaid it over and over under her breath: Ã¢â¬Å"free, free, free!Ã¢â¬ Women didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really have a view in the 19th century; they were low status and were thought not to have a opinion. I think that the men thought that women were pretty objects, just there to look attractive, have children, and ifÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦When she got all the compliments from the men, she loved it, she loved being pursued and being called beautiful and a woman. The pretty seventeen year old girl and the woman met at the party and the girl felt as if all her wishes had come true by actually talking to the woman. Olive Schreiner narrates the story so it seems as if she is actually the woman, which gives the more personal effect. The woman in Ã¢â¬ËThe necklaceÃ¢â¬â¢, Madame Loisel wanted to be the upper class women that she never was. She seemed to have the upper hand over her husband, Monsieur Loisel. Ã¢â¬ËShe looked at him irritably and said shortly Ã¢â¬Å"And what am I supposed to wear if I do go?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢ Monsieur Loisel thought that she would be happy by getting the invite to the party, but Madame Loisel seemed that nothing would please her no matter what her husband did for her she was never happy. She manipulated her husband and she was greedy. It seems that she never loved her husband she just married him as she thought that she wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to marry an upper class man, and jus accepted the offer of a clerk. All three writers use symbolism in their stories, which is fairly important as symbolism affect the women in the stories. In Ã¢â¬ËThe WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s RoseÃ¢â¬â¢ the girl had hoped that spring would come. Spring gives us the sense of happiness, romance, flowers and friendship. The word Ã¢â¬ËSpringÃ¢â¬â¢ was also used in the story on an hour By Kate Chopin. Mrs Mallard got excited and stated thinking about springShow MoreRelatedThe Evolution of American Womens Fashion5319 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagesout over the centuries? Most historians in this area agree that the change and progression in womens fashion can be credited to outside forces such as the present political conditions or beliefs among the societies in which these women take part in. Rose Kerr, a historian specializing in pop culture and womens fashion and author of Historic Costume, states in the introduction to her book that costume has always been influenced by contemporary conditions-social, religious, and political. NewRead MoreMarketing and Pandora12905 Words Ã |Ã 52 Pagesmeans that they will buy something that they like or looks appealing and especially on price terms, and not because its brand name or they have need for it. Pandora owns both, a niche and considerate prices, so the outcome could become a successes story. Generally companies in Latvia, by this mean including jewellery companies, do not put too much effort in marketing initiatives to illuminate them selfÃ¢â¬â¢s. So by doing this one can get a quick foothold in the Latvian market, because costumers in LatviaRead MoreVampire Diaries61771 Words Ã |Ã 248 Pagesher new outfits from Paris. She finally chose a pale rose top and white linen shorts combo that made her look like a raspberry sundae. Good enough to eat, she thought, and the mirror showed a girl with a secret smile. Her earlier fears had melted away, forgotten. Elena! Where are you? Youre going to be late for school! The voice drifted faintly up from below. Elena ran the brush one more time through silky hair and pulled it back with a deep rose ribbon. Then she grabbed her backpack and went downRead MoreEssay on Fall of Asclepius95354 Words Ã |Ã 382 Pagesstronger. I saw that in the end, what made us who we were, only intensified. What made us moral made us more moral. What made us evil made us more evil. -ZESR soldier during interview, unknown time, unknown location ------------- Entry 1: 24 hours before complete worldwide infection... The sun peaked over the green maple tree forest line next to the road. Its rays caressed Thomas face as he lay against the bus window. Thomas was eighteen, the oldest in his grade. He had dark blonde hairRead MoreIgbo Dictionary129408 Words Ã |Ã 518 PagesÃ kÃ rÃ Ã kÃ loÃ ²gÃ ²lÃ ¬ Ã kÃ mÃ ¹ Ã kanwÃ¡ » ¥ Ã kanya, Ã kanyÃ¡ »â¹ n. -gbe Ã kÃ mÃ ¹ n. n. -do Ã kanya -tÃ¡ » ¥ Ã kanya -tÃ¡ » ¥ Ã¡ » ¥nÃ Ã¯â¬ § akanya n. n. n. n. n. Ã kÃ rÃ Ã kÃ sÃ ¬Ã¯â¬ ¬ Ã kÃ taÃ kÃ Ã kÃ tÃ kpo Ã kÃ ¨le akÃ¡ »â¹lÃ¡ »â¹ka be distant, far, remote; be long (in time) kind of bead worn round neck; necklace; bead worn on wrist by renowned men dwarf; midget (cf. Ã kÃ kpÃ ²Ã¯â¬ ¥) male palace dwarf associated with EzÃâ Ã ¸rÃ ¬ jigger; animal tick insect seen on unscrubbed mud floors year last year; old times; days of old pangolin, whose skin is used for medicine mockery;
Friday, December 27, 2019
It has been determined by the United States Forest Service that nearly 80 percent of the U.S. population lives in urban areas that have developed a dependentÃ relationship withÃ the social, economic, and ecologicalÃ systemsÃ near cities and suburbs.Ã Although quiteÃ different from wildland forests, these urban forests have many challenges associated with healthy growth just as rural forests do. A large part of urban forest management includes planting the right tree for the appropriate site. The distribution of urban tree cover and the benefits of urban forests willÃ vary across the United States and requires addressing the challenges of sustaining this important resource with the best trees for every sites potential.Ã Top Trees to Plant in the Urban Landscape Overcup Oak or Quercus lyrata: Actually, mostÃ oaks are great in urban settings, but many are very slow growers, Overcup oak is also slow but quickly reaches 40.Ã It is recommended to plant in all but the Northcentral states.Ã Red Maple or Acer rubrum: This maple is a ubiquitous, wide-ranging, native tree. It adapts well to most soils and sites and thrives under urban conditions. It also is an early harbingerÃ of fall as it turns color well in advance of most eastern deciduous tree species.Ã White Oak or Quercus alba: This is the other oak recommended and can be planted in nearly every state in the US. It is similar to lyrata and easy to find in most nurseries.Ã Green Ash orÃ Fraxinus pennsylvanica: This tree is native to eastern North America and common west to Wyoming and Colorado but will grow in every state in the U.S. The tree is fast growing on moist sites and hardy once established. It is best grown as a single tree with adequate room to grow but to be avoided wh ere the emerald ash borer is endemic.Crapemyrtle or Lagerstroemia: This small tree is the most common southern street and yard tree planted in a wide range that encircles the US from New Jersey through the deep South, Texas, Southern California and to the Pacific Northwest. There are cold hardyÃ varies like Northern Crapemyrtle,Ã LagerstroemiaÃ indicaÃ that can be planted through zone 5.Dogwood or Cornus florida: This small showy all-season tree is possibly the favorite of yards and parks in all of the United States (with the exception of the middle upper western states).Japanese Maple or Acer palmatum: These trees have extraordinary shapes and are very popular in yards and open landscapes. As with dogwood, they are not hardyÃ in the middle upper western states.Baldcypress or Taxodium distichum: This tree is becoming the most popular tree in urban landscapes. It is hardy in all but the driest of states.Ã Others include the red oaks, a return of disease-resistantÃ Ameri can elm varieties and American linden (American basswood.) Urban and city forests are an essential component of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"green infrastructureÃ¢â¬ which makes the care and management of these city trees extremely important. Having the wrong trees (many of which are invasive), when added to natural (insects, diseases, wildfire, floods, ice and wind storms) and social problems (over development, air pollution, and inadequate management) makes for challenges as urban expansion continues. Top Trees NOT to Plant in the Urban Landscape Mimosa or Albizia julibrissin:Ã short-lived and very messy in any landscape.Silver maple or Acer sacharinum:Ã very messy, ornamentally dull, aggressive rootsLeyland Cypress or Cupressocyparis leylandii:Ã quickly outgrows space, short-lived.Lombardy Poplar or Populus nigra: canker-prone, with litter and short life.Popcorn tree or Sapium sibiferum: invasive tree species.Chinaberry or Melia azedarach: Invades disturbed areas to become thickets.Royal Paulownia or Paulownia tomentosa:Ã Invades disturbed areas to become thickets.Bradford Pear or Pyrus calleryanaÃ Bradford:Ã Invades disturbed areas to become thickets.Siberian Elm or Ulmus pumila:Ã Invades pastures, roadsides, and prairiesTree of Heaven or AilanthusÃ altissima:Ã Forms dense, clonal thickets, highly invasive.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Cultural Confrontations of the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s The 1920s were a time of change for the United States. Following the First World War there was a rush of new cultural, social, and artistic dynamism, partly fuelled by the Progressivism movement that was cut short when American entered the Great War. This decade was defined by a change from more rural farm life to industrialism in big cities. The shift from the frugality and traditional family values or previous generations to the happy-go-lucky consumerism and metropolitan life occurred more rapidly than any other social shift in living memory. These swiftly changing tides caused cultural clashes and confrontations throughout the decade as America struggled to define for itself a fresh nationalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The KKK adopted anti-Jewish, anti-Catholic, and anti-Immigration stances in addition to their longstanding anti-African-American beliefs. Before long, the Klan had amassed a membership of nearly 500,000 and lynching became commonplace. In many areas the Kla n became a powerful political force, pushing for better roads, more funding for public schools, and great anti-immigration laws. Many Klan members were poor whites who wanted some way to protect their jobs from the many European immigrants who were moving to the cities. However, the turnover rate for membership was about 15% as people joined and realized the full extent of what they had agreed to do, and quit. Despite the KlanÃ¢â¬â¢s vast membership, not all Americans supported their activities. The conflict surrounding race relations in the 1920s would be hard to conquer, but the Progressive movement still had some momentum from prewar years, and it memory of its optimism had not completely died during the war. Reinhold Niebuhr was the American-born son of a German immigrant from Missouri. Niebuhr became a Protestant minister and became a prominent figure of resistance to the Klu Klux Klan. In a sermon that was published on the front page of the Detroit Times and the Free P ress Niebuhr urged voters to vote against the Protestant candidate that was openly endorsed by the Klan. Niebuhr called the KKK Ã¢â¬Å"One of the worst social phenomena of our timeÃ¢â¬ even while recognizing that the Klan stemmed from his ownShow MoreRelated Societal Views on Interracialism Throughout American History6209 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pagesin the Harlem Renaissance of the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s compared to the late 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s. Almighty God created the races white, black, yellow, malay, and red, and he placed them on separate continents. And but for the interference with his arrangement there would be no cause for such marriages. The fact that he separated the races shows that he did not intend for the races to mix (Association of MultiEthnic Americans 2). This statement was made by a Virginia trial judge during the sentencing of Mildred
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss About The Environmental Degradation Of Barrier Reef? Answer: Introduction The Great Barrier Reef has been in the news for its environmental degradation, specifically, the bleaching of Coral. According to Wahlquist, (2017), a draft prepared by UNESCO has criticized the Australian government for not doing enough to protect the Great Barrier Reef. In the recent times, the pollution and global warming have impact the coral which is signified by the bleaching of the corals. Bleaching is an effect of the rising temperatures of the water in the Great Barrier Reef area, an effect of climate change, (McGuirk, 2017) and symbolizes serious environmental degradation of the reef. The Great Barrier Reef of Australia is under serious existential threat due o environmental degradation. The Great Barrier Reef is home to unparalleled variety of flora and fauna. The Reef stretches 2300 kilometers along the north eastern coastline of Australia and is listed as a one of the seven natural wonders. (Deloitte Access Economics, 2017). Climate change is the major cause of the degradation. However, The UNESCO expressed major concerns over the following causes of the degradation: Water quality Climate change Excessive tree clearing (United Nations Environment Programme, 2017) Diagram 1 Some of Threats to the Great Barrier Reef (Apart from Climate Change as a direct threat) Prepared by Auhor. Adapted from (United Nations Scientific , Educational and Cultural Organization, 2017) The Economic Value of the Great Barrier Reef The reef provides sources of livelihoods to thousands of Australians in various industries such as tourism, mining etc. Any coral reef has tourism value as well as it is a source of marine naural resources. According to United Nations Environment Programme, 2017, A square kilometre of healthy, well managed coral reefscan yield a catch of over 15 tons of fish and sea food every year. The degradation of the coral reef can trigger some serious consequences for he ecological and economic well being of he country.. The Great Barrier Reef is worth 3.7 billion annually to the Australian Economy through fishing and tourism every year. (Cummins Helfetz, 2017) (Deloitte Access Economics, 2017) Deloitte Access Economics (2017) identified the direct contribution of the reef as 6.4 billion AUD and 64,000 jobs to Australias economy . The consultancy also, idenified its iconic value or brand value to the reef and pegged it at 56 Billion AUD. Diseconomies of Economic Activities around the Great Barrier Area An Negative externality or a diseconomy is, mathematically, a (negative) deviation of Marginal Private Cost (MPC) from the marginal social cost. According to Lipsey Chrystal, (2011) Private costs are those costs that are incurred by parties that are involved directly in the Economic activity and Social costs are those costs that are borne by the society . Hence, the marginal private costs refers to the private cost of the last producing the last unit produced or providing services to the last consumer serviced. The Marginal Social Cost is a valuation of the impact borne by the society in the production of the last unit of good or services. Negative externalities decrease the social good i.e. they have harmful effects or cause inconvenience to the public, in general. (Lipsey Chrystal, 2011) It is important to understand the actual value of the economic value of all productive activities conducted in the Great Barrier Reef and match them against the economic value of the reef. For a simple policy analysis, the government can and must analyze the negative externalities of various activities such as mining, fishing, tourism etc. around the Great Barrier Reef and the social costs of these activities. Hence, the environmental degradation of Great Barrier Reef should not only be of concern to environmentalists but to public, in general. The loss of flora and fauna of he Great Barrier Reef directly affects the Australian economy. The following is a diagram of the negative externalities and the loss of social good resulting from it. The Marginal Private Costs in the cost of mining coal from around the area. This cost does not include the costs that society has to bear due to the mining. The Marginal social Cost includes the valuation of losses resulting from the mining of coal in the area. The loss of social good is the difference between the two.(Riley, 2005). Diagram 2 : Negative Externalities: Loss of Social Good. Prepared by Author. Source: (Riley, 2005) Recommendations The problem of Great Barrier Reef is one that can be solved by simple policy measures. Diagram 3 Key Stakeholders to the Prevention of Environmental Degradation of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia. (Prepared by Author) Carbon Pricing: Carbon Pricing of all mining activities around an identified area around the Great Barrier Reef: Carbon pricing will lead to internalization of the externalities. (Samuelson NordHaus, 2004) . A carbon price is a cost applied to carbon pollution to encourage polluters toreduce the amount ofgreenhouse gasthey emit into the atmosphere. (Grantham Research Institute, 2012) The Australian Government has initiated several measures to reduce the overall greenhouse gases in the country. However, carbon pricing of firms that mining activities around the reef would be discouraged to do so, because there would be an additional cost to mining from the area surrounding the Reef which may lead to mining entities looking at other areas. However, the carbon pricing must be in equilibrium with the marginal gains from taxes and the opportunity cost of mining in the given area. (Anderson, 2016) Coal Export Duty: A selective duty on export of coal. (Hutchens, 2016) . This duty may have a similar effect as carbon pricing. Ban on Riverbed Mining: Several conservationists, suggest, a ban on river bed mining in an around the area. An analysis of the economic benefits of mining, as against, the negative externalities of mining must be first conducted. (Robertson, 2017). This measure will help improve the water quality of the Reef. Improved National and State Regulation on land clearing through measures like quotas, zoning etc: Quotas and zoning will have the same effect as carbon pricing would have.(Queensland Government, 2017) Improved National and State Regulation on Fishing.(Australian Government, 2017) References Anderson, S. (2016, December 7). Why is everyone talking about a carbon tax? The carbon pricing debate explained. Retrieved August 23, 2017, from ABCn News.com7: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-12-05/the-carbon-pricing-debate-explained/8092506 Australian Government. (2017). Commercial Fishing and Zoning. Retrieved August 23, 2017, from Australian Government : Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority: www.gbrmpa.gov.au/zoning/commercial-fishing-and zoning Carlton, D. W., Perloff, J. M. (2000). Modern Industrial Organization. Reading , USA: HarperCollins College Publishers. Cummins, A., Helfetz, J. (2017, March 2016). Great Barrier Reef Suffering Unprecedented Damage. Retrieved August 24, 2017, from CNN: ediion.cnn.com Deloitte Access Economics. (2017). At what price? The economic, social and icon value of the Great Barrier Reef. Brisbane: Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited. Grantham Research Institute. (2012, July 16). The ultimate climate change FAQ. Retrieved August 23, 2017, from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/jul/16/carbon-price-tax-cap Hutchens, G. (2016, April 28). Great Barrier Reef: Greens call for new tax on mining to pay for damage. Retrieved August 23, 2017, from TheGuardian.com: https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2016/apr/28/great-barrier-reef-greens-call-for-new-tax-on-mining-to-pay-for-damage Lee, Y.-H. A., Brown, D. J. (2006). Competition, Consumer Welfare and the Social Cost of a Monopoly. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University. Lipsey, R., Chrystal, A. (2011). Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. McGuirk, R. (2017, June 3). UNESCO has Serious Concerns Over Great Barrier Reef Coral. M. phy.org . The Associated Press. Queensland Government. (2017, July 3). Vegetation management. Retrieved August 23, 2017, from Queensland Government: https://www.qld.gov.au/environment/laAnswer:nd/vegetation/exemptions Riley, G. (2005). European Economy in Focus. BerkShire (UK) : Tutor 2 u online. Robertson, J. (2017, August 18). Queensland conservationists call for river-mining ban to protect Great Barrier Reef. Retrieved August 23, 2017, from The Guardian.com: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/aug/18/queensland-conservationists-call-for-river-mining-ban-to-protect-great-barrier-reef Samuelson, P. A., NordHaus, W. R. (2004). Economics: Seventeenth Edition. New Delhi: Tata- McGraw Hill Publishing Company. United Nations Environment Programme. (2017). Coral Reefs Valuable But Vulnerable. Retrieved August 23, 2017, from United Nations Environment Programme : Coral Reefs Unit: coral.unep.ch/coral_reefs.html United Nations Scientific , Educational and Cultural Organization. (2017). CONVENTION CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE WORLD CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE. Paris: United Nations Scientific , Educational and Cultural Organization. Wahlquist, C. (2017, June 3). Great Barrier Reef: Australia must act urgently on water quality, says Unesco. Retrieved August 23, 2017, from theguardian: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/jun/03/great-barrier-reef-australia-must-act-urgently-on-water-quality-says-unesc
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Napoleon Napoleon was born August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica. This small, yet gallant figure was initially a fiercely independent Corsican, not a Frenchman as most would believe him to be. His areas of achievement were government, politics, and military. He was a strong leader during the French Revolution. He was very eager and determined to fight battles and win them. Sometimes, he was extremely stubborn. One of his most prestigious actions was when Napoleon crowned himself not the pope. Napoleon was the second of eight children of Charles Bonaparte and Letizia Ramolino Bonaparte, both of the Corsican-Italian gentry. Not one member of the family was a professional soldier. Napoleon was always a little boy and man. When he was young, he often had little "play" fights with the other Corsican boys and he would often lead his "troops" to victory. Napoleon was educated at Brienne and the Ecole Militaire, (French for "military school") in Paris. Napoleon graduated in 1785, at the age of sixteen. Then he joined the artillery as a 2nd lieutenant. His initial goal was to help Corsica, not France. In 1796, Napoleon was made commander of the French army in Italy. He defeated four Austrian generals and forced Austria and its allies to make peace. During his tenure in northern Italy, he founded the Cisalpine Republic and strengthened his position in France by sending millions of francs worth of treasure to the government. It was a morale boost to a nation cast in anarchy. Napoleon led an expedition to Egypt, ruled by the Turks, to cripple at British trade with the East. Despite his success in the Middle East, British Admiral Horatio Nelson destroyed his fleet, which left he and his army stranded. Napoleon took the chance to enhance his political skills by reforming the Egyptian government, abolishing serfdom, and feudalism. He also guaranteed basic rights for the citizens. Culturally, Napoleon brought French scholars to study ancient Egypt's history. These scholars helped decipher the famous Rosetta stone. Hence, the Egyptian hieroglyphics were fully translated. Although Bonaparte failed to defeat Syria in 1799, he won a crucial battle over the Turks at Abu Qir. However, France faced a major domestic problem. Austria, Russia, and lesser powers allied with Britain against France. These monarchies feared that the revolution in France would spread and incite the people of their nations. Their power was declining steadily and the only way to stop it would be to restore the French monarchy. Napoleon joined a conspiracy against the weak government in Paris. He and his colleagues seized power and established and new regime. The constitution was edited in 1802 to make Napoleon consul for life an in 1804 to create him emperor. In 1800, he assured his power by crossing the Alps and defeating the Austrians at Marengo. He then negotiated for peace in Europe that established the Rhine River as the eastern border of France. Napoleon also concluded an agreement with the pope that ended the argument with the Roman-Catholic Church. In France, the administration was reorganized, the court system was simplified, and all schools were put under centralized control. France's law was standardized in the Code Napoleon and six other codes. They guarantee rights won in the Revolution. Great Britain was prepared to take the war to Napoleon.